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Disclaimer

Although the information contained in this Code has been obtained from sources believed to be reliable, New Zealand Metal Roofing Manufacturers Inc. makes no warranties or representations of any kind (express or implied) regarding the accuracy, adequacy, currency or completeness of the information, or that it is suitable for the intended use.

Compliance with this Code does not guarantee immunity from breach of any statutory requirements, the New Zealand Building Code or relevant Standards. The final responsibility for the correct design and specification rests with the designer and for its satisfactory execution with the contractor.

While most data have been compiled from case histories, trade experience and testing, small changes in the environment can produce marked differences in performance. The decision to use a particular material, and in what manner, is made at your own risk. The use of a particular material and method may, therefore, need to be modified to its intended end use and environment.

New Zealand Metal Roofing Manufacturers Inc., its directors, officers or employees shall not be responsible for any direct, indirect or special loss or damage arising from, as a consequence of, use of or reliance upon any information contained in this Code.

New Zealand Metal Roofing Manufacturers Inc. expressly disclaims any liability which is based on or arises out of the information or any errors, omissions or misstatements.

If reprinted, reproduced or used in any form, the New Zealand Metal Roofing Manufacturers Inc. (NZMRM) should be acknowledged as the source of information.

You should always refer to the current online Code of Practicefor the most recent updates on information contained in this Code.

Scope

This Code of Practice provides requirements, information and guidelines, to the Building Consent Authorities, the Building Certifier, Specifier, Designer, Licensed Building Practitioner, Trade Trainee, Installer and the end user on the design, installation, performance, and transportation of all metal roof and wall cladding used in New Zealand.

The calculations and the details contained in this Code of Practice provide a means of complying with the performance provisions of the NZBC and the requirements of the Health and Safety at Work Act 2015.

The scope of this document includes all buildings covered by NZS 3604, AS/NZS 1170 and those designed and built under specific engineering design.

It has been written and compiled from proven performance and cites a standard of acceptable practice agreed between manufacturers and roofing contractors.

The drawings and requirements contained in this Code illustrate acceptable trade practice, but recommended or better trade practice is also quoted as being a preferred alternative.

Because the environment and wind categories vary throughout New Zealand, acceptable trade practice must be altered accordingly; in severe environments and high wind design load categories, the requirements of the NZBC will only be met by using specific detailing as described in this Code.

The purpose of this Code of Practice is to present both Acceptable Trade Practice and Recommended Trade Practice, in a user-friendly format to ensure that the roof and wall cladding, flashings, drainage accessories, and fastenings will:

  • comply with the requirements of B1, B2, E1 E2 and E3 of the NZBC;
  • comply with the design loading requirements of AS/NZS 1170 and NZS 3604 and with AS/NZS 1562;
  • have and optimised lifespan; and
  • be weathertight.

COP v23.12:Durability; Environment

4.5 The Environment 

4.5.1 Atmosphere 

The durability performance of metal roof and wall cladding depends on the macro- and microclimates, airborne contaminants, and the material itself.

The macroclimate is the general environmental category where the building is situated.

The microclimate relates to the exact location of the building and the design or position on the roof or wall. Microclimate influences include geothermal fumaroles, rain sheltering, topography and ground roughness, prolonged wetness, and exclusion of oxygen. Internal microclimates can also occur as result of the particular use of the building.
Contaminants and pollutants are corrosive influences which can affect the cladding. These can include fertiliser, soil, leaf fall-out, exhaust fumes, industrial fumes, bird droppings and the build-up of debris. Influences such as chlorides near the sea, geothermal hydrogen sulphide (H2S) or man-made gases such as sulphur dioxide (SO2) accelerate the corrosion rate by increasing the conductivity of the electrolyte and changing its pH value.
Rain provides the moisture that acts as the electrolyte in corrosion cells. Rain varies in pH because it picks up various contaminants from the pollutants in the atmosphere. Acid rain can happen in geothermal areas due to the presence of hydrogen sulphide in the atmosphere.
At 0°C metal corrosion is minimal, because colder temperatures slow the reaction. The corrosion rate of some metals doubles with every 10°C rise in temperature given the same time of wetness and environmental conditions. However, in dry, warm environments the time of wetness is decreased by faster drying times, which has the opposite effect.

Designers should be aware of macro- and microclimates and the degree of contamination. They should design their building and select materials considering a combination of all these factors.

4.5.2 Sea Spray 

The major contributor to metal corrosion in New Zealand is sea spray. Sea spray contains a mixture of salts consisting of 2.5 to 4% sodium chloride and small quantities of magnesium, calcium and potassium chloride. These salts make water far more electrically conductive.

Sea spray, evaporation, and infrequent rain increase salt concentrations on exterior surfaces, particularly when it accumulates in unwashed areas.

 

4.5.2A Airbone Salt from Sea Spray.

Onshore winds, big swells, wide generation zone and rugged coastline make ideal conditions for the production of salt aerosol.

 

The distance airborne salt is carried inland varies significantly with local wind patterns. Salt deposits have been measured as far inland as Lake Taupo in the North Island. Geographic or man-made obstructions, such as trees or buildings, slow air velocity and allow the air to discharge some of its salt burden, which can make the environment less aggressive. Conversely, where there are few impediments to the free flow of air, severe marine influence can extend well inland.

In high humidity levels, or when wetted by condensation, marine salts absorb water and form a chloride solution. Therefore, the effect of salt spray is greatest in unwashed areas, where salts can accumulate over time.

Where the ends of roof cladding are exposed to contaminants such as sea salt or industrial pollutants, it is good practice to provide an over flashing which discharges into the gutter or spouting. (See 8.5.5.4A Gutter-Eaves Flashing.)

  • It gives a measure of protection to the underside of the roof cladding and the underlay.
  • It provides support for the roofing underlay which is subject to damage from wind and UV.
  • When using PVC spouting, there is a gap between the spouting and the fascia caused by the thickness of the brackets. In coastal locations where the ends of roof cladding are exposed, this unwashed area becomes susceptible to corrosion. A gutter apron can minimise this risk.
  • If there is no spouting or it has a low front.
  • In severe environments, wind can drive contaminants up the ribs of exposed ends of roof cladding. Metal scriber flashings or filler blocks can be used to prevent or inhibit ventilation.

The over flashing should extend 50 mm into the gutter, and the underlay finishes on the down-slope of the flashing. If there is no over-flashing to the gutter, the underlay should be extended into the gutter by a minimum of 20 mm.

In some cases, the over flashing becomes a sacrificial flashing which can extend the life of the cladding. In such circumstances, the COP recommends making the flashing from aluminium.